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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

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the distance from the stations to the ice front. These observations were repeated in the years listed below, showing that the glacier retreated 586 feet between June 6, 1901, and June 18, 1911, or an average of about 58^ feet per year. It is unfortunate that Dr. Camicia made no observations in 1906 or 1907 when the otherwise steady retreat was interrupted, as will be shown later. He states that the glacier has retreated more on the east than on the west side. The measurements given below are about in the middle of the ice front.
Date of Observation	Amount of Retreat	Total Retreat
June  6, 1901, to June 18, 1902	89 feet	89 feet
June 18, 1902, to June   7, 1904	165    "	204    "
June  7, 1904, to June 16, 1905	97    "	801    "
June 16, 1905, to Oct. 13, 1908	205    "	506    "
Oct. 18, 1908, to June 21, 1909	44    "	550    "
June 21, 1909, to June 18, 1911	86    "	586    "
In June and September, 1904, the junior author spent several days at Valdez and made brief observations of the glacier. The following description is based upon notes made at the time. The front had no terminal cliff but ended in a low sloping edge, almost as in 1909. The lateral moraines were much as they are now, and in a wedge near the center the ice was mantled with angular fragments for a half mile from the front, but was less crevassed than in 1909. The area of crevassing near the turn in the glacier on the west side was much as during the whole period of observations. There was a good-sized lakelet in front of the glacier, west of the middle, a very large stream flowing from the eastern margin of the glacier, and a smaller stream from the western margin. The latter was very much larger than the stream occupying the same position in 1909.
Valdez Glacier has been twice visited by Professor U. S. Grant. He made observations and took photographs in 1905 which enabled him to detect an advance between that year and 1908, which he describes 1 as follows:
"The western part of the front of this (Valdez) glacier was visited about August 1, 1905, and again on July 11, 1908. Some time during this interval the glacier has advanced 250 to 350 feet and built a moraine and then retreated nearly to its former position. On the extreme western edge the ice in 1908 was about 100 feet in advance of its position in 1905."
Since Dr. Camicia did not visit the Valdez glacier in 1906 or 1907, we cannot be sure in which of these years the advance took place. It must have been slight and brief, as it escaped observation by the people of Valdez, only three and a half miles away. A photograph taken in June, 1907, proves that the advance was not going on at that time, and it seems probable that it occurred in 1906.
i In H: P. Reid's Variations of Glaciers, Journ. GeoU Vol. XVII, 1909, p. 70.
Grant, U. 8. and Higgins, D. F., Glaciers of the Northern Part of Prince William Sound, Bull. Amer. Geog. Soc., Vol. XLII, 1910, pp. 72iW26.